Hatshepsut htsh?pso?ot [key], d. 1458 BC, ruler of ancient Egypt, of the XVIII dynasty; eldest daughter of Thutmose I. She managed to rule Egypt by relegating her husband (and younger half-brother), Thutmose II, to the background during his brief reign. After his death, she continued in power as regent to his son, Thutmose III, and at some point was named pharoah. Thereafter she was regarded as a king rather than a queen and was often portrayed in pharaonic costume, including a false beard. Her reign (c.1479?1458) was peaceful, and she developed the resources of Egypt, encouraging trade and reviving the mining at Sinai. She also restored numerous monuments, initiated construction at Thebes, and built the famous mortuary temple at Deir el Bahari in W Thebes. After her death, however, all references to her on Egypt's monuments were obliterated, presumably by order of Thutmose III. In 2007 Egyptologists announced they believed they had identified her mummy.
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