Liang Ch'i-ch'ao

Liang Ch'i-ch'ao lyäng chē-chou [key], 1873–1929, Chinese reform leader. Liang was a disciple of K'ang Yu-wei . Stunned by China's disastrous defeat by Japan (see Sino-Japanese War, First ), K'ang and Liang launched (1895) a movement for constitutional and educational reform. The movement received the backing of Emperor Kuang-hsu in 1898, but the hundred days' reform was aborted by the Empress Dowager Tz'u Hsi . Liang fled to Japan where he continued to promote gradualist reform and constitutional monarchy. Although his writings had a great influence on the constitutional movement within China, the large Chinese student community in Japan increasingly favored an anti-Manchu revolution as espoused by Sun Yat-sen . Following the republican revolution of 1911, Liang returned to China and led the Progressive party in parliament, generally supporting the regimes of Yüan Shih-kai and Tuan Ch'i-jui and opposing the Kuomintang .

See studies by J. R. Levenson (2d rev. ed. 1967) and C. Hao (1971).

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