Anna Leopoldovna än´nə lyā˝əpôl´dəvnə [key] or Anna Karlovna kär´ləvnə [key], 1718–46, duchess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, regent of Russia (1740–41); daughter of Charles Leopold, duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and of Catherine, sister of Czarina Anna of Russia. She married the prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and their son, Ivan VI , succeeded (1740) Anna as czar. After the deposition of Ivan by Czarina Elizabeth , Anna Leopoldovna and her husband were imprisoned. She died in childbirth.
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