Clinton, De Witt
Clinton, De Witt də wĭt´ [key], 1769–1828, American statesman, b. New Windsor, N.Y.; son of James Clinton. He was admitted (1790) to the New York bar but soon became secretary to his uncle, George Clinton, first governor of the state, and in that position (1790–95) gained political experience and influence at an early age. In 1797 he entered the state legislature. As a U.S. Senator (1802–3), Clinton introduced the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution and opposed sentiment for hostilities against Spain. In 1803 he became mayor of New York City, and in 10 annual terms (1803–15) he promoted public education, city planning, public sanitation, and relief for the poor. While mayor he was successful in dictating the nomination of two governors. Clinton also held office as state senator (1806–11) and lieutenant governor (1811–13). He advocated removal of the political disabilities of Roman Catholics, abolition of slavery, and amelioration of severe punishment for debt and misdemeanors. He ran unsuccessfully for President against James Madison in 1812, with support from both Federalists and Republicans. As canal commissioner after 1810, Clinton sponsored the Erie Canal and the Champlain-Hudson Canal. From 1817 to 1823 he was governor of New York. Clinton continued to give constant support to the canal projects, but in 1824, after suffering temporary political reverses and through the opposition of the Albany Regency and Tammany, he was deprived of his post as canal commissioner. Again governor from 1825 until his death, however, Clinton celebrated the completion of the canals and promoted schools, manufacturing, and legal reform.
See biography by D. Bobbé (1933, rev. ed. 1962); H. L. McBain, De Witt Clinton and the Origin of the Spoils System (1907, repr. 1967); D. R. Fox, Decline of Aristocracy in the Politics of New York (1919, repr. 1965); E. Cornog, The Birth of Empire (1998).
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