Amphipolis [key], ancient city of Macedonia, on the Strymon (Struma) River near the sea and NE of later Thessaloníki. The place was known as Ennea Hodoi [nine ways] before it was settled and was of interest because of the gold and silver and timber of Mt. Pangaeus (Pangaion), to which it gave access. Athenian colonists were driven out (c.464 b.c.) by Thracians, but a colony was established in 437 b.c. Amphipolis became one of the major Greek cities on the N Aegean. This colony was captured by Sparta, and Brasidas and Cleon were both killed in a battle there in 422 b.c. After it was returned to Athens in 421 b.c., it actually had virtual independence until captured (357 b.c.) by Philip II of Macedon. He had promised to restore it to Athens, and his retention of Amphipolis was a major cause of the war with Athens. In 148 b.c. it became the capital of the Roman province of !Macedonia. Paul, Silas, and Timothy passed through Amphipolis (Acts 17.1). Archaeological excavations have uncovered a number of remains including (beginning in 2012) the largest burial site ever unearthed in Greece. Nearby is the modern Greek village of Amfípoli.
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