Gabii gā´bēī [key], ancient town of Latium, 12 mi (19.3 km) E of Rome on the road to Praeneste (modern Palestrina). According to legend, Romulus was reared there. One of the most important of the Latin cities, it supposedly resisted a siege by Lucius Tarquinius Superbus (see Tarquin) but was early overshadowed by Rome and had lost all importance even in the days of the republic. In the early 21st cent. a monumental structure that preceded Greece's ascribed influence on Roman architecture was excavated in Gabii. The modern village of Castiglione is on the site.

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