Antiochus IV (Antiochus Epiphanes) āntī´əkəs ēpĭf´ənēz [key], d. 163 BC, king of Syria (175 BC–163 BC), son of Antiochus III and successor of his brother Seleucus IV. His nephew (later Demetrius I ) was held as a hostage in Rome, although still claiming the throne. Antiochus is best known for his attempt to Hellenize Judaea and extirpate Judaism—a policy that instigated the rebellion of the Maccabees . Antiochus invaded Egypt, which was torn by strife between Ptolemy VI and his brother (later Ptolemy VIII ), and would probably have conquered that region if the Romans had not intervened in his siege of Alexandria (168). Antiochus was briefly succeeded by his son, Antiochus V, a boy king who was overthrown by Demetrius I.
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