Irigoyen, Hipólito ēpō´lētō ērēgō´yān [key], 1850?–1933, Argentine political leader, president of the republic (1916–22, 1928–30). In 1896 he became the leader of the Radicals, a bourgeois reform party. By propaganda, and sometimes by insurrection, he opposed the conservative regime. The electoral reform of Roque Sáenz Peña enabled the Radicals in 1916 to replace the landowning oligarchy and to elect Irigoyen president. Ignoring congressional resolutions and public opinion, he maintained neutrality in World War I. Some reform measures were enacted during his administration but his efforts to increase Radical power led to forceful intervention in the provinces and produced much opposition. In 1922 he was succeeded by another Radical, Marcelo T. de Alvear. Irigoyen was swept back into the presidency in 1928 with great popular acclaim, but his second administration, in the midst of economic depression, was so unpopular that he was overthrown and the oligarchy was reinstated (Sept., 1930).
See R. A. Potash, The Army and Politics in Argentina (Vol. I, 1969).
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