Abbas II (Abbas Hilmi) äbäs´ hĭl´mĭ, ăbäs´, ăb´əs [key], 1874–1944, last khedive of Egypt (1892–1914); son and successor of Tewfik Pasha . Nominally he ruled in subordination to the Ottoman Empire, but in fact Egypt was controlled by the British resident—at first Lord Cromer , and later Lord Kitchener . Although he resisted complete British rule, Abbas met with little success; in 1899 he was forced to admit the British claim to rule jointly with Egypt over Sudan. When Turkey joined the Central Powers in World War I, Britain declared Egypt a British protectorate and deposed Abbas. He lived thereafter in Switzerland, where he died. He wrote The Anglo-Egyptian Settlement (1930).
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