hundred days' reformwas aborted by the Empress Dowager Tz'u Hsi. Liang fled to Japan where he continued to promote gradualist reform and constitutional monarchy. Although his writings had a great influence on the constitutional movement within China, the large Chinese student community in Japan increasingly favored an anti-Manchu revolution as espoused by Sun Yat-sen. Following the republican revolution of 1911, Liang returned to China and led the Progressive party in parliament, generally supporting the regimes of Yüan Shih-kai and Tuan Ch'i-jui and opposing the Kuomintang.
See studies by J. R. Levenson (2d rev. ed. 1967) and C. Hao (1971).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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