Chalukya chä´lo͝okyə [key], several S Indian dynasties that ruled in the Deccan. They claimed descent from Pulakesin I (reigned 543–566), who established himself at Badami (in N Karnataka). The Early Chalukyas held power in N Karnataka from the 6th cent. until 757, and were rivals to the Palavas. Vengi (near Eluru, Andhra Pradesh) became the center of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty, which ruled there from 624 until the 11th cent., surviving the fall of the Early Chalukyas in Badami. The Late Chalukyas gained ascendancy in the Deccan c.973, centered at Kalyani (Basavakalyan, Karnataka). The history of the Kalyani, or Western, Chalukya kingdom was largely one of war with the Cholas and defense against the incursions of the Turks and Arabs who were plundering N India. The kingdom broke up in 1189.

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