Maurya mou´əryə [key], ancient Indian dynasty, c.325–c.183 BC, founded by Chandragupta (Chandragupta Maurya). He conquered the Magadha kingdom and established his capital at Pataliputra (now Patna). His son, Bindusara (d. c.273), and his grandson, Aśoka, the most notable ruler of ancient India, for the first time in history brought nearly all India, together with Afghanistan, under one rule. The culture of the Mauryan empire represents the first great flowering of Indian civilization, not to be equaled until the coming of the Gupta dynasty.
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