Chaykovsky, Nikolai Vasilyevich [key], 1850–1926, Russian socialist. As a student in St. Petersburg he joined (1869) a utopian socialist student group (later known as the “Chaykovsky circle”) that influenced the development of the narodniki (populist) movement. He emigrated to the United States and established (1875) a utopian community in Kansas. It failed, and Chaykovsky moved (1880) to England, becoming active in radical émigré activities but also coming under the influence of western notions of liberal democracy. In 1905 he returned to Russia and devoted himself to promoting the cooperative movement, also becoming a leader of the People's Socialist party. After the Bolshevik revolution he headed (1918–19) the anti-Bolshevik government at Archangel under the auspices of the Allied expeditionary force. He died in exile in Paris. The name is variously spelled Chaikovsky, Tchaikovsky, and Tschaikovsky.
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