Rajputana räj˝po͝otä´nə [key], historic region, NW India; roughly coextensive with the modern Indian state of Rajasthan. The name means land of the Rajputs. Rajput tribal power rose here between the 7th and 13th cent., and the princes resisted the early Muslim incursions, which began in the 11th cent. Rajput power reached its peak in the early 16th cent., but the area fell to the Mughals when Akbar captured the fort of Chitor in 1568. From their seat at Ajmer the Mughals ruled Rajputana until the early 18th cent. The Marathas held feudatories in the region from c.1750 to 1818, when it passed to Great Britain. Under the British, Rajputana included more than 20 princely states, notably Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Udaipur, and Ajmer. The internal autonomy of many of the states was guaranteed. Most of these states were incorporated into Rajasthan after India gained independence in 1947.

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