Kaohsiung or Kao-hsiungboth: gou´shyo͞ong´ [key], special municipality (2010 pop. 2,777,384), 1,140 sq mi (2,952 sq km), S Taiwan. The economic center of S Taiwan, it is Taiwan's leading port but also includes (since 2010) the former Kaohsiung co. and extends some 75 mi (120 km) inland into Taiwan's mountainous Yushan National Park. The city's designation as an export processing zone in the late 1970s has stimulated foreign investment. The leading industries produce petroleum products, steel, cement, aluminum, wood and paper products, fertilizers, metals, and machinery; shipbuilding is also carried on. Kaohsiung is connected by high-speed rail to Taipei. The city grew up from a small fishing village and was developed as a manufacturing center and port by the Japanese, who occupied Taiwan in 1895. The National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts (2018) is one of the largest performing arts centers in the world. An important naval base is there.
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