Dating from Roman times, Skopje was captured by the Serbs in 1282 and was the scene (1346) of Stephen Dušan 's coronation as czar of Serbia. It fell to the Turks in 1392 and until the fall of Constantinople (1453) was considered the second city of Turkey. Skopje was taken by the Serbs in the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 and was included in Yugoslavia in 1918. It was occupied by the Germans during World War II. After liberation, it became the capital of the Yugoslavian constituent republic of Macedonia from 1945 until 1991, when Macedonia declared its independence.
Among the many ancient landmarks of the city are the Stone Bridge across the Vardar (said to date from Roman times and rebuilt in the 15th cent.), the Turkish citadel, the fine Mosques of Mustafa Pasha and of Sultan Murad (both 15th cent.), and the bazaar. Much of the city had to be rebuilt after a disastrous earthquake in 1963, and a controversial rebuilding project has transformed the city center since 2010.
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