Návplion näf´plēôn [key] or Nauplianô´plēə [key], town (1991 pop. 11,897), capital of Argolís prefecture, S Greece, in the Peloponnesus, a port on the Gulf of Argolís. It is a commercial center that ships tobacco, cotton, and fruits. According to tradition, the town was founded by Nauplius, who was the father of Palamedes. In 1715, Návplion was captured by the Ottoman Turks from Venice. The town was taken in 1822 by the Greek insurgents and was (1830–34) the first capital of independent Greece. The revolt (1862) against King Otto I began there.

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