In the East the Council of Chalcedon was declared (c.476) invalid by Basiliscus, the imperial usurper. Later, Emperor Zeno, restored to his throne, issued the Henoticon (482), based on the doctrines of St. Cyril of Alexandria, in an attempt to settle the dispute. It recommended a formula that, ostensibly orthodox, left a loophole for the Non-Chalcedonians. Neither side was satisfied; the extreme Monophysites refused to accept the intended compromise, and the pope excommunicated the East for abrogating the Council of Chalcedon.
The schism ended in 519 when Emperor Justin I enforced the definition of faith of Chalcedon. Later, Justinian, although strongly Catholic, was tolerant toward the Monophysites, who were becoming more intransigent. The quarrel was further embittered when Justinian in 544 condemned the so-called Three Chapters. These were the person and writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, the writings of Theodoret against St. Cyril of Alexandria, and the letter of Ibas of Edessa to Maris the Persian. The condemnation was based on the assertion that these writings were tainted with Nestorianism. Since parts of the Three Chapters were considered orthodox by the majority of Catholics, the edict was confusing.
The Second Council of Constantinople (553; see Constantinople, Second Council of), summoned by Justinian and attended by Pope Vigilius, again condemned the Three Chapters, while maintaining the authority of the canons of Chalcedon. The Monophysites remained aloof, and the West was virtually alienated. Justinian's successors alternately favored and suppressed Monophysitism, but by 600 the lines of schism had hardened; the Coptic Church (see under Copts), the Jacobite Church of Syria, and the Armenian Church, all Non-Chalcedonian, were established. Modern Non-Chalcedonian churches also include the Eritrean and Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo churches and the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church of India. Monotheletism was a 7th-century attempt to reconcile orthodoxy with Monophysitism.
See W. H. Frend, The Rise of the Monophysite Movement (1972); J. Pelikan, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (1971) and The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (1974).
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