Paschal II p?sk?l [key] [Lat.,=of Easter], d. 1118, pope (1099?1118), an Italian (b. near Ravenna) named Ranieri; successor of Urban II. He was a monk and, as a reformer, was made a cardinal by Pope Gregory VII. He was a loyal supporter of Urban II as well. His reign began auspiciously. Philip I of France was reconciled with the church (1104), St. Anselm was victor in his struggle in England, and the First Crusade was a great success. Difficulties with the Roman emperor were continual, however, chiefly over the question of investiture. Henry IV was deposed by his son Henry V, with whom Paschal was allied. Henry V, however, proved no less strongly anti-investiture. He invaded Italy in 1110; negotiations between emperor and pope failed, and the emperor captured Paschal, who was compelled to surrender the papal position on investitures. Once freed, however, and encouraged by clerical protests, the pope reaffirmed the legislation against lay investiture in 1112 and 1116. The name is also spelled Pascal. He was succeeded by Gelasius II.
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