Ettwein, John [key], 1721–1802, German-American churchman, leader and bishop of the Moravian Church in the United States. He came to America from Germany in 1754 as a missionary. In his mission work he traveled as far south as Georgia and made several trips to New England. He preached to many indigenous tribes and established missions among those in Pennsylvania. In 1772 he led a band of Christian Native Americans to a new settlement established in Ohio by the Moravian missionary David Zeisberger, and after the Revolution he prevailed upon Congress to set aside reservations for the converted Native Americans. He represented the Moravians in negotiations with the Continental Congress over their refusal to bear arms or subscribe to the Test Act. From 1784 to 1801 he was bishop and head of the church in the United States.
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