Cayley, Arthur kā´lē [key], 1821–95, English mathematician. He was admitted to the bar in 1849. In 1863 he was appointed first Sadlerian professor of mathematics at Cambridge. His researches, which covered the field of pure mathematics, included especially the theory of matrices (see matrix) and the theory of invariants. The algebra of matrices was the tool Heisenberg used in 1925 for his revolutionary work in quantum mechanics (see quantum theory). The concept of invariance is important in modern physics, particularly in the theory of relativity. Cayley's collected papers were published in 13 volumes (1889–98).
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