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Alfonso XIII, king of Spain

(Encyclopedia)Alfonso XIII, 1886–1941, king of Spain (1886–1931), posthumous son and successor of Alfonso XII. His mother, Maria Christina (1858–1929), was regent until 1902. In 1906, Alfonso married Princess...

Alfonso XII, king of Spain

(Encyclopedia)Alfonso XII, 1857–85, king of Spain (1874–85), son of Isabella II. He went into exile with his parents at the time of the revolt of the Carlists in 1868 and was educated in Austria and England. In...

Louis XIII, king of France

(Encyclopedia)Louis XIII, 1601–43, king of France (1610–43). He succeeded his father, Henry IV, under the regency of his mother, Marie de' Medici. He married Anne of Austria in 1615. Even after being declared o...

Charles XIII, king of Sweden and Norway

(Encyclopedia)Charles XIII, 1748–1818, king of Sweden (1809–18) and Norway (1814–18). He became regent for his nephew, Gustavus IV, after the assassination (1792) of his brother Gustavus III. He introduced so...

Ferrer Guardia, Francisco

(Encyclopedia)Ferrer Guardia, Francisco fränthēsˈkō fārārˈ gwärˈdyä [key], 1859–1909, Spanish political theorist and educator. An ardent liberal, anticlerical, and republican, he took refuge in France (...

Leo XIII, pope

(Encyclopedia)Leo XIII, 1810–1903, pope (1878–1903), an Italian (b. Carpineto, E of Rome) named Gioacchino Pecci; successor of Pius IX. Ordained in 1837, he earned an excellent reputation as archbishop of Perug...

Maria Christina, 1858–1929, queen of Spain

(Encyclopedia)Maria Christina märēˈä krēstēˈnä [key], 1858–1929, queen of Spain, consort of Alfonso XII. An Austrian archduchess, she was married to Alfonso in 1879. After his death, she was regent (1886...

Bourbon

(Encyclopedia)Bourbon b&oomacr;rbôNˈ, European royal family, originally of France; a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty (see Capetians). One branch of the Bourbons occupies the modern Spanish throne, and ot...

Alfonso II, king of Portugal

(Encyclopedia)Alfonso II (Alfonso the Fat), 1185–1223, king of Portugal (1211–23), son and successor of Sancho I. His reign was spent in struggles with the church and his brothers and sisters, to whom his fathe...

Alfonso III, king of Portugal

(Encyclopedia)Alfonso III, 1210–79, king of Portugal (1248–79), son of Alfonso II, brother and successor of Sancho II. By his marriage with Matilda, countess of Boulogne, he became count of Boulogne and thus wa...

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