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Sadat, Anwar al-

(Encyclopedia)Sadat, Anwar al- änwärˈ äl-sädätˈ [key], 1918–81, Egyptian political leader and president (1970–81). He entered (1936) Abbasia Military Academy, where he became friendly with Gamal Abdal Na...

Zawahiri, Ayman al-

(Encyclopedia)Zawahiri or Zawahri, Ayman al- both: īˈmän äl-zäwäˈrē [key], 1951–, militant Egyptian Islamist. A surgeon by education and training, he became involved with the Muslim Brotherhood and joined...

Nimeiri, Muhammed Jaafar al-

(Encyclopedia)Nimeiri or Nimeiry, Muhammed Jaafar al- mo͞ohämˈmäd jäfärˈ äl-nĭmārˈē [key], 1930–, Sudanese army officer and politician. Early active in the Sudanese nationalist movement, he was tempor...

Mubarak, Muhammad Hosni

(Encyclopedia)Mubarak, Muhammad Hosni hōsˈnē mo͞obəˈrək [key], 1928–2020, president of Egypt (1981–2011). Air force commander (1972–75) and vice president (1975–81) of Egypt, he became president afte...

Camp David accords

(Encyclopedia)Camp David accords, popular name for the peace treaty forged in 1978 between Israel and Egypt at the U.S. presidential retreat at Camp David, Md. The official agreement was signed on Mar. 26, 1979, in...

Begin, Menachem

(Encyclopedia)Begin, Menachem mĕnäˈkhĕm bāˈgĭn [key], 1913–92, Zionist leader and Israeli prime minister (1977–83), b. Russia. He became (1938) leader of a Zionist youth movement in Poland, where he also...

Anwar Ibrahim

(Encyclopedia)Anwar Ibrahim änˈwär ēˈbrähēm [key], 1947–, Malaysian political leader. He first came to public attention as the founder (1971) of an Islamic youth movement and as a leader of antigovernment ...

Baladhuri, al-

(Encyclopedia)Baladhuri, al- äl-bäläˈᵺo͝orē [key], d. c.892, Arab historian. One of the most important Arab historians, he spent most of his life in Baghdad and enjoyed great influence at the court of the c...

Kindi, al-

(Encyclopedia)Kindi, al- (Abu Yusuf Yakub ibn Ishak al-Kindi) äˈbo͞o yo͞oso͝ofˈ yäko͞obˈ ĭbˈən ēshäkˈ ăl-kĭnˈdē [key], 9th cent. Arab philosopher, b. Basra (now in Iraq). He studied at Basra and ...

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