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Ba'ath party

(Encyclopedia)Ba'ath party bäˈäth [key], Arab political party, in Syria and in Iraq. Founded in Damascus in 1941 with an ideology of secularism, socialism, and pan-Arab unionism, it was reformed with the name Ba...

Allawi, Ayad

(Encyclopedia)Allawi, Ayad ĕyädˈ äläˈwē [key], 1946–, Iraqi political leader. A doctor and prominent secular Shiite, he was a Ba'ath party member but went into exile in 1971. After a 1978 assassination att...

Assad, Bashar al-

(Encyclopedia)Assad, Bashar al- bäshärˈ äl-äsˈsäd [key], 1965–, Syrian political leader, son of Hafez al-Assad. A medical doctor, he left Syria (1992) for an ophthamology residency i...

Hussein, Saddam

(Encyclopedia)Hussein, Saddam sädämˈ ho͞osānˈ [key], 1937–2006, Iraqi political leader. A member of the Ba'ath party, he fled Iraq after participating (1959) in an assassination attempt on the country's pri...

Bakr, Ahmad Hasan al-

(Encyclopedia)Bakr, Ahmad Hasan al- äkhmädˈ häsänˈ äl-bäkˈər [key], 1914–82, president of Iraq (1968–79). He served as an officer in the Iraqi army but was forced to retire (1958) because of his parti...

Hafez, Amin al-

(Encyclopedia)Hafez or Hafiz, Amin al- ämēnˈ äl-häˈfəz [key], 1921?–2009, Syrian army officer and politician. He served (1963–65) as chief of state in Syria's Ba'athist government (see Ba'ath party) but ...

Abdul-Mahdi, Adel

(Encyclopedia)Abdul-Mahdi, Adel, 1942–, Iraqi political leader. Born into a prominent Shiite family, he joined the Ba'ath party in the early 1960s, then left the party and went into self-exile in France in 1969. ...

Kassem, Abdul Karim

(Encyclopedia)Kassem, Abdul Karim äbdo͝olˈ kärēmˈ kässēmˈ [key], 1914–63, Iraqi general and politician. A graduate (1934) of the Iraqi military academy, he attended the army staff college. His outstandin...

Majid, Ali Hassan al-

(Encyclopedia)Majid, Ali Hassan al- äˈlē hāˈsän äl-mäjēdˈ [key], 1941–2010, Iraqi general and Ba'athist, cousin of Saddam Hussein. After Hussein took power (1979), Majid played a pivotal role in the Ba'...

American party

(Encyclopedia)American party: see Know-Nothing movement. ...

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