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Crommelynck, Fernand

(Encyclopedia)Crommelynck, Fernand fĕrnäNˈ krôməlăNkˈ [key], 1885?–1970, Belgian dramatist, b. Paris. Crommelynck's first great success was a tragic farce about jealousy, Le Cocu magnifique (1921, tr. The ...

Braudel, Fernand

(Encyclopedia)Braudel, Fernand, 1902–85, French historian. He studied under Lucien Febvre and was a founder of the Annales school of historiography. As a German prisoner-of-war during World War II, he wrote his m...

Léger, Fernand

(Encyclopedia)Léger, Fernand fĕrnäNˈ lāzhāˈ [key], 1881–1955, French painter. Léger first studied architecture, then he began to paint, studying briefly at the École des Beaux-Arts. He became known for h...

Brahic, André Fernand

(Encyclopedia)Brahic, André Fernand, 1942–2016, French astrophysicist, b. Paris. He was introduced to astrophysics by Evry Schatzman, a leading French theoretician, and obtained his doctorate from the Univ. of P...

Loewy, Raymond Fernand

(Encyclopedia)Loewy, Raymond Fernand, 1893–1986, American designer, b. Paris, France. He emigrated in 1919, settling in New York City; he became a U.S. citizen in 1938. Known as the father of industrial design, L...

Spontini, Gaspare

(Encyclopedia)Spontini, Gaspare gäsˈpärā spōntēˈnē [key], 1774–1851, Italian opera composer. Spontini studied music in Naples. He went to Paris in 1803, was soon backed by the Empress Josephine, won a pri...

Bing, Elisabeth Dorothea Koenigsberger

(Encyclopedia)Bing, Elisabeth Dorothea Koenigsberger, 1914–2015, American advocate of natural childbirth, b. Berlin. She left Germany for England in 1933, where she trained as a physical therapist and began worki...

Césaire, Aimé

(Encyclopedia)Césaire, Aimé (Aimé Fernand Césaire) ĕmāˈ fĕrnäNˈ sāzârˈ [key], 1913–2008, West Indian poet and essayist who wrote in French. After studying in Paris he became concerned with the plight...

Amaral, Tarsila do

(Encyclopedia)Amaral, Tarsila do, 1886–1973, Brazilian painter, usually known as Tarsila. She brought modern art to Brazil, mingling Brazilian themes with modernistic imagery in her paintings. After studying in B...

Richter, Hans

(Encyclopedia)Richter, Hans rĭkhˈtər [key], 1888–1976, American artist, b. Germany. A painter and filmmaker, Richter was influenced by cubism and Dada and was a member of the Dutch de Stijl group (see Stijl, ...

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