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Courbet, Gustave

(Encyclopedia)Courbet, Gustave güstävˈ ko͞orbāˈ [key], 1819–77, French painter, b. Ornans. He moved to Paris in 1839 and studied there, learning chiefly by copying masterpieces in the Louvre. An avowed real...

realism, in art

(Encyclopedia)realism, in art, the movement of the mid-19th cent. formed in reaction against the severely academic production of the French school. Realist painters sought to portray what they saw without idealizin...

Moreau, Gustave

(Encyclopedia)Moreau, Gustave güstävˈ môrōˈ [key], 1826–98, French painter. He was known for his pictures of the weird and mystical. The recipient of many honors, he refused to sell his paintings except to ...

Doré, Gustave

(Encyclopedia)Doré, Gustave güstävˈ dôrāˈ [key], 1832–83, French illustrator, engraver, painter, and sculptor. He is best known for his highly imaginative and dramatic illustrations. At first he did his ow...

Flaubert, Gustave

(Encyclopedia)Flaubert, Gustave güstävˈ flōbĕrˈ [key], 1821–80, French novelist, regarded as one of the supreme masters of the realistic novel. He was a scrupulous, slow writer, intent on the exact word (le...

Charpentier, Gustave

(Encyclopedia)Charpentier, Gustave güstävˈ shärpäNtyāˈ [key], 1860–1956, French composer; pupil of Massenet. His best-known works are the opera Louise (1900), portraying bohemian Parisian life, and his orc...

Eiffel, Alexandre Gustave

(Encyclopedia)Eiffel, Alexandre Gustave īˈfəl, Fr. älĕksäNˈdrə güstävˈ āfĕlˈ [key], 1832–1923, French engineer. A noted constructor of bridges and viaducts, he also designed the Eiffel Tower and the...

Le Bon, Gustave

(Encyclopedia)Le Bon, Gustave güstävˈ lə bôN [key], 1841–1931, French psychologist and sociologist. He was the author of a number of works on social psychology, in which he expounded theories of national tra...

Gamelin, Maurice Gustave

(Encyclopedia)Gamelin, Maurice Gustave môrēsˈ güstävˈ gäməlăNˈ [key], 1872–1958, French army officer. During World War I he served on General Joffre's staff and as a division commander. He was made chie...

Wappers, Gustave, Baron

(Encyclopedia)Wappers, Gustave, Baron güstävˈ bärôNˈ väpĕrsˈ, väpˈərs [key], 1803–74, Belgian historical and genre painter. For many years director of the Antwerp Academy, he introduced the romantic s...

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