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Karzai, Hamid

(Encyclopedia)Karzai, Hamid hämēdˈ kärzīˈ [key], 1957–, Afghan political leader, b. Kandahar. Karzai's father and grandfather, who both served in the government of King Muhammad Zahir Shah, were heads of th...

Abdül Hamid

(Encyclopedia)Abdül Hamid. For Ottoman sultans thus named, use Abd al-Hamid.

Ghani, Ashraf

(Encyclopedia)Ghani, Ashraf (Mohammad Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai), 1949–, Afghan political leader, president of Afghanistan (2014–), Ph.D Columbia, 1983. Trained as an cultural anthropologist, he taught at Kabul Uni...

Abd al-Hamid I

(Encyclopedia)Abd al-Hamid I Turk. äbdülˈhämēdˈ [key], 1725–89, Ottoman sultan (1774–89), brother and successor of Mustafa III. His reign, one of decline for the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), saw the end of th...

Abd al-Hamid II

(Encyclopedia)Abd al-Hamid II, 1842–1918, Ottoman sultan (1876–1909). His uncle, Abd al-Aziz, was deposed from the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) in 1876 by the Young Turks, a liberal reformist group. Ab...

Abdullah, Abdullah

(Encyclopedia)Abdullah, Abdullah äbdəläˈ äbdəläˈ [key], 1960–, Afghan political leader. An ophthalmologist of Tajik and Pashtun ethnicity, he worked with guerrilla leader Ahmed Shah Massoud, head of the N...

Midhat Pasha

(Encyclopedia)Midhat Pasha mĭdhätˈ päshäˈ [key], 1822–83, Turkish politician. As governor of Bulgaria he succeeded within the few years of his tenure (1864–69) in raising the country from misery to relati...

Murad V

(Encyclopedia)Murad V, 1840–1904, Ottoman sultan (1876), son of Abd al-Majid. He came to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) when his uncle, Abd al-Aziz, was deposed, but he was soon declared insane and was...

Mustafa III

(Encyclopedia)Mustafa III, 1717–73, Ottoman sultan (1757–73), son of Ahmed III. He succeeded his cousin Osman III to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). The chief event of his reign was the war of 1768...

Mustafa IV

(Encyclopedia)Mustafa IV, 1778–1808, Ottoman sultan (1807–8), son of Abd al-Hamid I. He was raised to the throne by the reactionary Janissaries who had deposed Mustafa's cousin, Selim III, because they opposed ...

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