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Ptolemy XI

(Encyclopedia)Ptolemy XI (Ptolemy Alexander), d. 80 b.c., king of ancient Egypt (80 b.c.), of the Macedonian dynasty, son of Ptolemy X. His stepmother, Cleopatra Berenice, was joint ruler with her father, Ptolemy I...

Ptolemy XII

(Encyclopedia)Ptolemy XII (Ptolemy Auletes) ôlēˈtēz [key], d. 51 b.c., king of ancient Egypt (80–58 b.c., 55–51 b.c.), of the Macedonian dynasty, illegitimate son of Ptolemy IX. He is also called Ptolemy Ne...

Xi

(Encyclopedia)Xi shē jyäng [key], great river of S China, c.1,250 mi (2,010 km) long, rising in E Yunnan prov. and flowing generally E through Guangxi and Guangdong provs. to the South China Sea near Guangzhou; t...

Ptolemy I

(Encyclopedia)Ptolemy I (Ptolemy Soter) tŏlˈəmē sōˈtər [key], d. 284 b.c., king of ancient Egypt, the first ruler of the Macedonian dynasty (or Lagid dynasty), son of a Macedonian named Lagus. He was one of ...

Ptolemy V

(Encyclopedia)Ptolemy V (Ptolemy Epiphanes) ĭpĭfˈənēz [key], d. 180 b.c., king of ancient Egypt (205–180 b.c.), of the Macedonian dynasty, son of Ptolemy IV. He succeeded to the throne as a small boy, and hi...

Ptolemy X

(Encyclopedia)Ptolemy X (Ptolemy Alexander), d. 88 b.c., king of ancient Egypt (107 b.c.–88 b.c.), of the Macedonian dynasty, brother of Ptolemy IX. He was governor in Cyprus when called (110 b.c.) by his mother ...

Ptolemy

(Encyclopedia)Ptolemy (Claudius Ptolemaeus), fl. 2d cent. a.d., celebrated Greco-Egyptian mathematician, astronomer, and geographer. He made his observations in Alexandria and was the last great astronomer of ancie...

Gregory XI

(Encyclopedia)Gregory XI, 1330–78, pope (1370–78), a Frenchman named Pierre Roger de Beaufort. He was the successor of Urban V, who had made an unsuccessful attempt to remove the papacy from Avignon to Rome (13...

Innocent XI

(Encyclopedia)Innocent XI, 1611–89, pope (1676–89), an Italian named Benedetto Odescalchi, b. Como; successor of Clement X. He was elected because of his great saintliness and desire for reform. His election ha...

Benedict XI

(Encyclopedia)Benedict XI, d. 1304, pope (1303–4), an Italian (b. Treviso) named Niccolo Boccasini; successor of Boniface VIII. Prior to his election he had been master general of the Dominican order. As pope he ...

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