Facts & Figures
President: Dilma Rousseff (2011)
Land area: 3,265,059 sq mi (8,456,511 sq km); total area: 3,286,470 sq mi (8,511,965 sq km)
Population (2012 est.): 205,716,890 (growth rate: 1.1%); birth rate: 17.48/1000; infant mortality rate: 21.820.5/1000; life expectancy: 72.79; density per sq km: 22
Capital (2009 est.): Brasília, 3,789,000
Largest cities: São Paulo, 19,900,000; Rio de Janeiro, 11,836,000; Salvador, 2,590,400; Belo Horizonte, 5,736,000; Recife, 1,485,500; Porto Alegre, 4,034,000
Monetary unit: Real
National name: República Federativa do Brasil
Ethnicity/race: white 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% (2000)
National Holiday: Independence Day, September 7
Religion: Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 15%, Spiritualist 1%, none 7% (2000)
Literacy rate: 88.6% (2011 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $2.282 trillion; per capita $11,600. Real growth rate: –2.7%. Inflation: 6.5%. Unemployment: 6%. Arable land: 7%. Agriculture: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef. Labor force: 104.7 million; agriculture 20%, industry 14%, services 66% (2011 est.). Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment. Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber. Exports: $250.8 billion f.o.b. (2011 est.): transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos. Imports: $219.6 billion f.o.b. (2011 est.): machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil. Major trading partners: U.S., Argentina, China, Netherlands, Germany, Mexico, Nigeria, Japan (2005).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 42.141 million (2011); mobile cellular: 202.944 million (2011). Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM stations) (1999). Television broadcast stations: 138 (1997). Internet hosts: 23,790,000 (2011). Internet users: 75.892 million (2011).
Transportation: Railways: total: 28,538 km (2011). Highways: total: 1,751,868 km; paved: 96,353 km; unpaved: 1,655,515 km (2011). Waterways: 50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2005). Ports and harbors: Gebig, Itaqui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, San Sebasttiao, Santos, Sepetiba Terminal, Tubarao, Vitoria. Airports: 4,072 (2011 est.).
International disputes: unruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute with Uruguay over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina; in 2004 Brazil submitted its claims to UNCLOS to extend its maritime continental margin.