Facts & Figures
Sultan: Haji Hassanal Bolkiah (1967)
Land area: 2,035 sq mi (5,265 sq km); total area: 2,228 sq mi (5,765 sq km)
Population (2020 est.): 478,054 (growth rate: 1.45%); birth rate: 16.14/1000; infant mortality rate: 10.52/1000; life expectancy: 78.38; density per sq km: 72 (2012)
Capital and largest city (2011 est.): Bandar Seri Begawan, 241,000
Other large cities: Kuala Belait 27,800, Seria 23,400
Monetary unit: Brunei dollar
National Name: Negara Brunei Darussalam
Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese
Ethnicity/race: Malay 65.8%, Chinese 10.2%, other 24% (2020 est.)
National Holiday: National Day, February 23
Religions: Muslim (official) 80.9%, Christian 7.1%, Buddhist 7.1%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 5% (2016 est.)
Literacy rate: 97.2% (2018 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2020 est.): $27.23 billion; per capita $62,200. Real growth rate: 1.3%. Inflation: -0.2%. Unemployment: 6.9% (2017). Arable land: 0.8%. Agriculture: rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, eggs. Labor force: 203,600; note: includes foreign workers and military personnel; temporary residents make up about 40% of labor force; agriculture 4.2%, industry 62.8%, services 33% (2008 est.). Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction. Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber. Exports: $7.83 billion (2019 est.): crude oil, natural gas, refined products. Major trading partners (exports): Japan 34%, Australia 12%, Singapore 10%, India 8%, Malaysia 8%, Thailand 7%, China 6%, South Korea 5% (2019). Imports: $6.81 billion (2019 est.): machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals. Major trading partners (imports): Singapore 18%, China 14%, Malaysia 12%, Nigeria 5%, United Arab Emirates 5%, United States 5% (2019).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 103,885 (2020); mobile cellular: 526,589 (2020). Broadcast Media: state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 5 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks and broadcasts on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2022). Internet hosts: 49,403 (2011). Internet users: 415,609 (2020).
Transportation: Highways: total: 2,976 km (2014). Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m (2012). Ports and harbors: Lumut, Muara, Seria. Airports: 1 (2021 est.).
International disputes: in 2003 Brunei and Malaysia ceased gas and oil exploration in their disputed offshore and deepwater seabeds and negotiations have stalemated prompting consideration of international legal adjudication; Malaysia's land boundary with Brunei around Limbang is in dispute; Brunei established an exclusive economic fishing zone encompassing Louisa Reef in southern Spratly Islands in 1984 but makes no public territorial claim to the offshore reefs; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants.