Facts & Figures
Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II (1952)
Governor-General: Mary Simon (2021)
Prime Minister: Justin Trudeau (2015)
Land area: 3,511,003 sq mi (9,093,507 sq km); total area: 3,855,102 sq mi (9,984,670 sq km)
Population (2022 est.): 38,232,593 (growth rate: 0.75%); birth rate: 10.17/1000; infant mortality rate: 4.38/1000; life expectancy: 83.8
Capital (2022 est.): Ottawa, Ontario, 1.423 million
Largest cities (metropolitan areas) (2022 est.): Toronto 6.313 million; Montreal 4.277 million; Vancouver 2.632 million; Calgary 1.611 million; Ottawa (capital) 1.423 million; Edmonton 1.519 million
Monetary unit: Canadian dollar
Languages: English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)
Ethnicity/race: Canadian 32.3%, English 18.3%, Scottish 13.9%, French 13.6%, Irish 13.4%, German 9.6%, Chinese 5.1%, Italian 4.6%, North American Indian 4.4%, East Indian 4%, Ukrainian 3.9%, other 47.7% (2016 est.)
National Holiday: Canada Day, July 1
Religions: Catholic 40.6% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, Orthodox 1.6%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)
Literacy rate: 99% (2011 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2020 est.): $1,742,790,000,000; per capita $45,900. Real growth rate: 1.66%. Inflation: 1.9%. Unemployment: 5.67%. Arable land: 4.7%. Agriculture: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish. Labor force: 18.136 million (2020); agriculture 2%, industry 3%, construction 6%, services 76%, manufacturing 3% (2006). Industries: transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum and natural gas. Natural resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower. Exports: $477.31 billion (2020 est.): motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum. Imports: $510.29 billion (2020 est.): machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods. Major trading partners: U.S., UK, China, Mexico (2020).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 13.34 million (2020); mobile cellular: 32.36 million (2020). Broadcast media: 2 public TV broadcasting networks each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 2,000 licensed radio stations in Canada (2008). Internet hosts: 15,825,813 (2020). Internet users: 36,896,088 (2020).
Transportation: Railways: total: 49,422 km (2021). Highways: total: 1.0423 million (2011). Waterways: 636 km; note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2011). Ports and harbors: Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouve, Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence); Fraser River Port (Fraser); Hamilton (Lake Ontario). Airports: 1,467 (2013 est.).
International disputes:managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.