Ethiopia

Facts & Figures

Map of Ethiopia
  • President: Sahle-Work Zewde (2018)

    Prime Minister: Abiy Ahmed Ali (2018)

    Land area: 423,388 sq mi (1,096,570 sq km); total area: 426,372 sq mi (1,104,300 sq km); water area: 2,98sq mi (7,730 sq km)

    Population (2022 est.): 113,656,596 (growth rate: 2.46%); birth rate: 30.49/1000; infant mortality rate: 33.51/1000; life expectancy: 68.25

    Capital and largest city (2022 est.): Addis Ababa, 5.228 million

    Monetary unit: Birr

    National name: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik

    Current government officials

    Languages: Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)

    Ethnicity/race: Oromo 35.8%, Amhara 24.1%, Somali 7.2%, Tigray 5.7%, Sidama 4.1%, Guragie 2.6%, Welaita 2.3%, Afar 2.2%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 13.5% (2022 est.)

    National Holiday: Independence Day, May 28

    Religions: Ethiopian Orthodox 43.8%, Muslim 31.3%, Protestant 22.8%, Catholic 0.7%, traditional 0.6%, other 0.8% (2016 est.)

    Literacy rate: 51.8% (2017 est.)

    Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2020 est.): $264.05 billion; per capita $2,300. Real growth rate: 10.9%. Inflation: 15.7%. Unemployment: 3.5% (2013). Arable land: 15.2%. Agriculture: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, qat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish. Labor force: 52.82 million (2017); agriculture and animal husbandry 72.7%, government and services 19.9%, industry and construction 7.4% (2013). Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement. Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower. Exports: $7.62 billion (2018 est.): coffee, qat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds. Major trading partners (exports): China 17%, United States 16%, United Arab Emirates 8%, Saudi Arabia 6%, South Korea 5%, Germany 5% (2019). Imports: $19.93 billion (2018 est.): food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles. Major trading partners (imports): China 27%, India 9%, United Arab Emirates 9%, France 9%, United Kingdom 7% (2019).

    Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 1.252 million (2020); mobile cellular: 44.5 million (2020). Broadcast media: 6 public TV stations broadcasting nationally and 10 public radio broadcasters; 7 private radio stations and 19 community radio stations (2017). Internet hosts: 179 (2012). Internet users: 27,591,260 (2020).

    Transportation: Railways: total: 659 km (2017) (Ethiopian segment of the 756 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad). Highways: total: 120,171 km (2018). Ports and harbors: Ethiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia. Airports: 57 (2021)

    International disputes: Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia.

    Major sources and definitions

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