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(Encyclopedia)influenza or flu, acute, highly contagious disease caused by a RNA virus (family Orthomyxoviridae); formerly known as the grippe. There are three types of the virus, designated A, B, and C, but only t...

swine flu

(Encyclopedia)swine flu or swine influenza: see influenza. ...


(Encyclopedia)flu: see influenza.


(Encyclopedia)grippe: see influenza.

avian flu

(Encyclopedia)avian flu: see influenza.

bird flu

(Encyclopedia)bird flu: see influenza.

Nicolle, Charles Jules Henri

(Encyclopedia)Nicolle, Charles Jules Henri shärl zhül äNrēˈ nēkôlˈ [key], 1866–1936, French physician and microbiologist. He worked with P. P. É. Roux in Paris and was director of the Pasteur Institute i...


(Encyclopedia)laryngitis, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the voice box, or larynx, usually accompanied by hoarseness, sore throat, and coughing. Acute laryngitis is often a secondary bacterial infection tri...


(Encyclopedia)croup kro͞op [key], acute obstructive laryngitis in young children, usually between the ages of three and six. The manifestations are a high-pitched cough and difficulty in breathing, owing to a spas...

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