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penicillin

(Encyclopedia)penicillin, any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial inf...

Fleming, Sir Alexander

(Encyclopedia)Fleming, Sir Alexander, 1881–1955, Scottish bacteriologist, discoverer of penicillin (1928) and lysozyme (1922), an antibacterial substance found in saliva and other body secretions. Educated at St....

vancomycin

(Encyclopedia)vancomycin vănˌkōmīˈsĭn [key], antibiotic resembling penicillin in the way it acts. It is derived from the bacterium Streptomyces orientalis, which was isolated from soil of India and Indonesia....

Florey, Howard Walter Florey, Baron

(Encyclopedia)Florey, Howard Walter Florey, Baron, 1898–1968, British pathologist, b. Australia. He was educated at Adelaide Univ. and at Cambridge and Oxford and returned to Oxford as professor of pathology in 1...

ampicillin

(Encyclopedia)ampicillin ămˌpĭsĭlˈĭn [key], a penicillin-type antibiotic that is effective against both gram-negative microorganisms and gram-positive microorganisms such as Escherichia coli. It is often used...

cephalosporin

(Encyclopedia)cephalosporin sĕfˌəlōspôrˈĭn [key], any of a group of more than 20 antibiotics derived from species of fungi of the genus Cephalosporium and closely related chemically to penicillin. Cephalospo...

mastitis, bovine

(Encyclopedia)mastitis, bovine, bacterial inflammation of the udder in dairy cattle. It is spread during the process of milking, either by machine or by hand, and by flies. The symptoms include inflammation of the ...

Chain, Ernst Boris

(Encyclopedia)Chain, Ernst Boris, 1906–79, English biochemist, b. Berlin, Germany. In 1933 he left Germany and went to England, where he conducted research at Cambridge from 1933 to 1935 and at Oxford from 1935; ...

Woodward, Robert Burns

(Encyclopedia)Woodward, Robert Burns, 1917–80, American chemist and educator, b. Boston, grad. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (S.B., 1936; Ph.D., 1937). He taught at Harvard from 1938, becoming Donner prof...

chemotherapy

(Encyclopedia)chemotherapy kēˌmōthĕrˈəpē [key], treatment of disease with chemicals or drugs. One chemotherapeutic approach is the development of selectively toxic substances, i.e., substances that can destr...

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