Facts & Figures
President: Rafael Correa (2007)
Land area: 106,888 sq mi (276,840 sq km); total area: 109, 483 sq mi (283,560 sq km)
Population (2014 est.): 15,654,411 (growth rate: 1.37%); birth rate: 18.87/1000; infant mortality rate: 17.93/1000; life expectancy: 76.36
Capital (2011 est.): Quito 1.622
Largest cities: Guayaquil, 2.287 million (2011)
Monetary unit: U.S. dollar
National name: República del Ecuador
Languages: Spanish (Castillian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2% note: (Quechua and Shuar are official languages of intercultural relations; other indigenous languages are in official use by indigenous peoples in the areas they inhabit) (2010 est.)
Ethnicity/race: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Afroecuadorian 7.2%, Amerindian 7%, white 6.1%, other 0.4% (2010 census)
National Holiday: Independence Day, August 10
Religion: Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
Literacy rate: 91.6% (2011 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2011 est.): $157.6 billion; per capita $10,600. Real growth rate: 45%. Inflation: 2.6%. Unemployment: 4.2% Arable land: 4.51%. Agriculture: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp. Labor force: 6.953 million (2012 est.); agriculture 27.8%, industry 17.8%, services 54.4% (2012). Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals. Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower. Exports: $25.48 billion (2013 est.): petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp. Imports: $26.22 billion (2013 est.): vehicles, medicinal products, telecommunications equipment, electricity. Major trading partners: U.S., Peru, Japan, Russia, China, Colombia, Brazil, Chile, Panama (2012).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 2.31 million (2012); mobile cellular: 16.457 million (2012). Broadcast media:Ecuador has multiple TV networks and many local channels, as well as more than 300 radio stations; many TV and radio stations are privately owned; the government owns or controls 5 national TV stations and multiple radio stations; broadcast media required by law to give the government free air time to broadcast programs produced by the state (2007). Internet hosts: 170,538 (2012). Internet users: 3.352 million (2009).
Transportation: Railways: total: 965 km (2008). Roadways: total: 43,670 km; paved: 6,472 km; unpaved: 37,198 km (2011). Waterways: 1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2012). Ports and harbors: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar. Airports: 432 (2013).
International disputes: organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country.