Facts & Figures

Map of Egypt
  • President: Gen. Abdel Fattah el-Sisi (2014)

    Prime Minister: Mostafa Madbouly (2018)

    Land area: 384,344 sq mi (995,451 sq km); total area: 386,662 sq mi (1,001,450 sq km)

    Population (2022 est.): 107,770,524 (growth rate: 1.68%); birth rate: 21.46/1000; infant mortality rate: 17.7/1000; life expectancy: 74.45

    Capital and largest city (2022 est.): Cairo, 21.750 million

    Other large cities: Alexandria, 5.484 million; Bur Sa'id, 764,000 (2022)

    Monetary unit: Egyptian pound

    National name: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah

    Current government officials

    Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes

    Ethnicity/race: Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)

    National Holiday: Revolution Day, July 23

    Religions: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 90%, Christian (majority Coptic Orthodox, other Christians include Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Maronite, Orthodox, and Anglican) 10% (2012 est.)

    Literacy rate: 71.2% (2017 est.)

    Economic summary: GDP/PPP $1,223,040,000,000 (2020 est.); per capita $12,000. Real growth rate: 4.2%. Inflation: 9.3%. Unemployment: 7.86%. Arable land: 2.8%. Agriculture: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats. Labor force: 24.113 million (2020); agriculture 25.8%, industry 25.1%, services 49.1% (2015 est.). Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures. Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc. Exports: $40.1 billion (2020 est.): crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals. Major trading partners (exports): United States 9%, United Arab Emirates 6%, Italy 6%, Turkey 6%, Saudi Arabia 6%, India 5% (2019). Imports: $72.48 billion (2020 est.): machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels. Major trading partners (imports): China 15%, Russia 7%, United States 6%, Saudi Arabia 6%, Germany 5%, Turkey 5% (2019).

    Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 9,858,331 (2020); mobile cellular: 95,357,427 (2020). Broadcast media: mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately owned radio stations operational (2019). Internet hosts: 200,430 (2012). Internet users: 73,680,770 (2020).

    Transportation: Railways: total: 5,085 km (2014). Roadways: total: 65,050 km; (2018 est.). Waterways: 3,500 km; note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2018). Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Suez, Zeit. Airports: 83 (2021).

    International disputes: Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir.

    Major sources and definitions

Flag of Egypt