Facts & Figures
President: Nguyen Xuan Phuc (2021)
Prime Minister: Pham Minh Chinh (2021)
Land area: 119,718 sq mi (310,070 sq km); total area: 127,880 sq mi (331,210 sq km)
Population (2022 est.): 103,808,319 (growth rate: .97%); birth rate: 15.69/1000; infant mortality rate: 14.75/1000; life expectancy: 75.52
Capital (2022 est.): Hanoi, 7.1 million (metro. area), 5.067 million (city proper)
Largest cities (2022): Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), 9.077 million; Can Tho, 1.786 million; Hai Phong, 1.382 million; Da Nang, 1.188 million; Bien Hoa, 1.078 million.
Monetary unit: Dong
National name: Công Hòa Xa Hôi Chú Nghia Viêt Nam
Languages: Vietnamese (official); English (increasingly favored as a second language); some French, Chinese, Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Ethnicity/race: Kinh (Viet) 85.3%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.9%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.4%, Mong 1.4%, Nung 1.1%, other 5.5% (2019 est.)
Religions: Catholic 6.1%, Buddhist 5.8%, Protestant 1%, other 0.8%, none 86.3% (2019 est.)
Literacy rate: 95.8% (2019 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2020 est.): $798.21 billion; per capita $8,200. Real growth rate: 6.8%. Inflation: 2.7%. Unemployment: 3.11%. Arable land: 20.6%. Agriculture: rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; poultry; fish, seafood. Labor force: 54.659 million; agriculture 40.3%, industry 25.7%, services 34% (2019). Industries: food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones. Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower. Exports: $280.83 billion (2019 est.): clothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery. Major trading partners (exports): United States 23%, China 14%, Japan 8%, South Korea 7% (2019). Imports: $261.68 billion (2019 est.): machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles. Major trading partners (imports): China 35%, South Korea 18%, Japan 6% (2019).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 3,205,775 (2020); mobile cellular: 136.23 million (2019). Radio broadcast stations: Government controls all broadcast media exercising oversight through the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC); government-controlled national TV provider, Vietnam Television (VTV), operates a network of 9 channels with several regional broadcasting centers; programming is relayed nationwide via a network of provincial and municipal TV stations; law limits access to satellite TV but many households are able to access foreign programming via home satellite equipment; government-controlled Voice of Vietnam, the national radio broadcaster, broadcasts on 6 channels and is repeated on AM, FM, and shortwave stations throughout Vietnam (2018). Television broadcast stations: at least 7 (plus 13 repeaters) (1998). Televisions: 3.57 million (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 189,553 (2012). Internet users: 68,137,008 (2020).
Transportation: Railways: total: 2,600 km (2014). Highways: total: 195,468 km; paved: 148,338 km; unpaved: 47,130 km (2013 est.). Waterways: 47,130 km (30,831 km weight under 50 tons) (2013). Ports and harbors: Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Ha Long, Quy Nhon, Nha Trang, Vinh, Vung Tau. Airports: 45 (2021).
International disputes: Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary