Facts & Figures
President: Truong Tan Sang (2011)
Prime Minister: Nguyen Tan Dung (2006)
Land area: 125,622 sq mi (325,361 sq km); total area: 127,244 sq mi (329,560 sq km)
Population (2014 est.): 93,421,835 (growth rate: 1%); birth rate: 16.26/1000; infant mortality rate: 18.99/1000; life expectancy: 72.91; density per sq mi: 703
Capital (2013 est.): Hanoi, 7.1 million (metro. area), 2.955 million (city proper)
Largest cities: Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), 8,190,775; Haiphong 925,000; Da Nang 834,000
Monetary unit: Dong
National name: Cng Ha Xa Hi Ch Nghia Vit Nam
Languages: Vietnamese (official); English (increasingly favored as a second language); some French, Chinese, Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)
Ethnicity/race: Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, others 5.3% (1999 census)
Religions: Buddhist 9%, Catholic 7%, Hoa Hao 2%, Cao Dai 1%, Protestant, Islam, none 81%
Literacy rate: 93.4% (2011 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $358.9 billion; per capita $4,000. Real growth rate: 5.3%. Inflation: 6.8%. Unemployment: 1.3%. Arable land: 19.64%. Agriculture: rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; poultry; fish, seafood. Labor force: 52.93 million; agriculture 48%, industry 21%, services 31% (2013). Industries: food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones. Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower. Exports: $128.9 billion (2013 est.): clothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery. Imports: $121.4 billion (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles. Major trading partners: U.S., Japan, China, Germany, Singapore, UK, South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand (2012).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 10.191 million (2012); mobile cellular: 134.066 million (2012). Radio broadcast stations: Government controls all broadcast media exercising oversight through the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC); government-controlled national TV provider, Vietnam Television (VTV), operates a network of 9 channels with several regional broadcasting centers; programming is relayed nationwide via a network of provincial and municipal TV stations; law limits access to satellite TV but many households are able to access foreign programming via home satellite equipment; government-controlled Voice of Vietnam, the national radio broadcaster, broadcasts on 6 channels and is repeated on AM, FM, and shortwave stations throughout Vietnam (2008). Radios: 8.2 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: at least 7 (plus 13 repeaters) (1998). Televisions: 3.57 million (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 189,553 (2012). Internet users: 23.382 million (2009).
Transportation: Railways: total: 2,632 km (2008). Highways: total: 206,633 km; paved: 148,338 km; unpaved: 47,130 km (2013 est.). Waterways: 47,130 km (30,831 km weight under 50 tons) (2013). Ports and harbors: Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Ha Long, Quy Nhon, Nha Trang, Vinh, Vung Tau. Airports: 45 (2013).
International disputes: Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary